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Structurez votre histoire et vos idées. It has a typical elevation of nave and aisles with wooden panelled ceilings and an apsidal east end. Stylized foliage often appears, sometimes deeply carved and curling outward after the manner of the acanthus leaves on Corinthian capitals, but also carved in shallow relief and spiral patterns, imitating the intricacies of manuscript illuminations. In many churches the eastern end has been rebuilt in a later style. The portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, has unusual features including the frieze of roundels on the lintel, the scalloped jambs and figures of prophets on the central jamb. Other areas saw extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. It is not uncommon, for example, for a part of building that has been constructed over a lengthy period extending into the 12th century, to have very similar arcading of both semi-circular and pointed shape, or windows that are identical in height and width, but in which the later ones are pointed. C’était sur le site, qui entretemps s’est dissout. Your treatment will be sent in discreet packaging, always with free 2-day shipping. ROMAN brings inspiration to your home with a unique collection of items for Christmas, Garden, Baby, Wedding, Jewelry and Religious Occasions. The three portals became increasingly common. Among the many examples that exist, one of the finest is the figure of the Prophet Jeremiah from the pillar of the portal of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, from about 1130. La grappe a un rôle essentiel : démarrer le réacteur, le piloter pendant une vingtaine d’années ou l’arrêter. The 19th-century reconstruction of the westwerk of the Romanesque Speyer Cathedral. In other countries they have suffered from war, neglect and changing fashion. [Notes 3]. Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, from a series of Emperors (12th and 13th centuries) The panels are now set into Gothic windows, Strasbourg Cathedral, Detail of a small panel showing Kings David and Solomon set in an architectonic frame from a large window at Strasbourg. The interior may be arcaded on several levels as at Pisa Cathedral. Bienvenue à la Cabane de Roman ! The arches used in Romanesque architecture are nearly always semicircular, for openings such as doors and windows, for vaults and for arcades. Towers were an important feature of Romanesque churches and a great number of them are still standing. Vous seul(e) pouvez visualiser votre activité de recherche d’emploi. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian, Carolingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. The aisle of the Abbey Church at Mozac has groin vaults supported on transverse arches. Elsewhere, porches of various dates have been added to the facade or side entrance of existent churches and may be quite a substantial structure, with several bays of vaulting supported on an open or partially open arcade, and forming a sort of narthex as at the Church of St Maria, Laach.See above In Spain, Romanesque churches often have large lateral porches, like loggias. Charlemagne's Palatine Chapel, Aachen, 9th century, modelled on the Byzantine church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Interior of St. Michael's, Hildesheim, (1001–1031) with alternating piers and columns and a 13th-century painted wooden ceiling. It has a markedly modular look. In section, the typical aisled church or cathedral has a nave with a single aisle on either side. The two central openings are deeply recessed. Combined with the pierced carving of the capitals, this gives a delicacy and refinement to the interior. Southwell Cathedral, England, 1120, follows the Norman model with pyramidal spires as were probably at Saint-Étienne. [21] In France, the famous abbeys of Aux Dames and Les Hommes at Caen and Mont Saint-Michel date from this period, as well as the abbeys of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. King David from Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century. [1][24], The Corinthian capital is essentially round at the bottom where it sits on a circular column and square at the top, where it supports the wall or arch. In the case of trussed rafter roofs, they are sometimes lined with wooden ceilings in three sections like those that survive at Ely and Peterborough cathedrals in England. Votre inscription peut être annulée à tout moment depuis votre espace personnel ou depuis nos newsletters. Roman is a digital health clinic for men. The apsidal east end was often a focus of decoration, with both architectonic forms such as arcading and pictorial features such as carved figures, murals and occasionally mosaics. Stanford Memorial Church at Stanford University, US, is a loose interpretation of a Romanesque facade. Retrouvez nos coordonnées, horaires d'ouverture, plan d'accès, contact, Devis. [32] The precise form differs from region to region.[30]. At Santa Maria della Pieve, Arezzo, this screening is carried even further, as the roofline is horizontal and the arcading rises in many different levels while the colonettes that support them have a great diversity of decoration.[12][26]. The nave of Peterborough Cathedral (1118–1193) in three stages of arcade, gallery & clerestory, typical of Norman abbey churches. Major figurative decoration occurs particularly around the portals of cathedrals and churches, ornamenting the tympanum, lintels, jambs and central posts. Pour cela, rendez-vous … Two fine examples occur at Lucca, at the church of San Frediano and at the Duomo. Mes romans. A healthy life includes a healthy sex life. The small church of Saint-Pierre Xhignesse, Belgium, already has a semi-circular termination at the same height as the choir and nave. The nave is aisled, but the chancel and transepts are not. Librairie Decitre [14][15], In Germany, the Holy Roman Emperors built a number of residences, fortified, but essentially palaces rather than castles, at strategic points and on trade routes. Nous partageons également des informations sur l'utilisation de notre site avec nos partenaires de médias sociaux, de publicité et d'analyse, qui peuvent combiner celles-ci avec d'autres informations que vous leur avez fournies ou qu'ils ont collectées lors de votre utilisation de leurs services. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this later date being the most commonly held. Romanesque doorways have a character form, with the jambs having a series of receding planes, into each of which is set a circular shaft, all surmounted by a continuous abacus. It is a feature of Romanesque art, both in manuscript illumination and sculptural decoration, that figures are contorted to fit the space that they occupy. Abbey of St Pere of Burgal, Catalonia, Spain, In England the major pictorial theme occurs above the chancel arch in parish churches. The sculptured frieze above is protected by an eave on corbels. Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. [1] An early ribbed vault in the Romanesque architecture of Sicily is that of the chancel at the Cathedral of Cefalù. Two panels of lively figures, Seth and Adam from the 12th-century Ancestors of Christ, Canterbury Cathedral, now set into a Perpendicular Gothic window with panels of many different dates. The lowest stage is marked by large doors, each set within an arch in each of the three vertical sections. A typical Germanic characteristic is the presence of towers framing the chancel and the west end. The atrium and arcaded narthex of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, is a harmonious composition of similar arches. Je dévore une soixantaine de livres par an, surtout des romans. Les éditions Grasset disposent d'un catalogue de plus de 5000 titres (littérature, essai, roman et jeunesse) avec environ 170 nouveautés par an. However, the barrel vault generally required the support of solid walls, or walls in which the windows were very small. Roman-affiliated physician practices are independently owned and operated by licensed physicians who provide services utilizing the Roman telehealth platform. (See pic. Site gallo-romain de Sanxay Discover the Sanxay site, a major thermal spa and pilgrimage site from the 1st to the 4th century. 82688 The continual movement of people, rulers, nobles, bishops, abbots, craftsmen and peasants, was an important factor in creating a homogeneity in building methods and a recognizable Romanesque style, despite regional differences. New York. [17], The Tower of London (1078); William the Conqueror built the central White Tower as his stronghold and residence, Speyer Cathedral, begun by Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1030, as an expression of imperial power and architectural innovation. Architecture of a Romanesque style also developed simultaneously in the north of Italy, parts of France and in the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of the Abbey of Cluny. The use of piers of rectangular plan to support arcades was common, as at Mainz Cathedral and St Gertrude Nivelle, and remained usual in smaller churches across Europe, with the arcades often taking the form of openings through the surface of a wall. In England stout columns of large diameter supported decorated arches, gallery and clerestory, as at the nave of Malmesbury Abbey (see "Piers and columns", above). Lire en ligne Alors ce site est fait pour vous ! Narrow doors and small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel. Charlemagne was crowned by Pope Leo III in Old St. Peter's Basilica on Christmas Day of 800, with an aim to re-establishing the old Roman Empire. On the apse walls below would be saints and apostles, perhaps including narrative scenes, for example of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. These buildings are the subject of a separate article. At a time when the remaining architectural structures of the Roman Empire were falling into decay and much of its learning and technology lost, the building of masonry domes and the carving of decorative architectural details continued unabated, though greatly evolved in style since the fall of Rome, in the enduring Byzantine Empire. In the case of Winchester Cathedral, the Gothic arches were literally carved out of the existent Norman piers. The majority are vertically bedded and are sometimes of a variety of colours. It is also seen in Spain.[1]. Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome (8th – early 12th century) has a basilical plan and reuses ancient Roman columns. At St. Michael's, Hildesheim, an A B B A alternation occurs in the nave while an A B A alternation can be seen in the transepts. St Michael's, Hildesheim, shows two columns set between the piers. One such is the Crucifixion of Poitiers, a remarkable composition that rises through three stages, the lowest with a quatrefoil depicting the Martyrdom of St Peter, the largest central stage dominated by the crucifixion and the upper stage showing the Ascension of Christ in a mandorla. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the tradition of carving large works in stone and sculpting figures in bronze died out. The very large piers at the crossing signify that there was once a tower. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either substantially intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form, character and decoration of Romanesque church architecture. Church and cathedral façades and external decoration, Transitional style and the continued use of Romanesque forms, Romanesque castles, houses and other buildings. In Northern Europe the foliate capitals generally bear far more resemblance to the intricacies of manuscript illumination than to Classical sources. The westwork of the Maria Laach Abbey, Germany, 12th century, (porch 1225) is typical of Germany, a form that dates to Carolingian architecture with grouped towers of different plans and both "candle-snuffer" and Rhenish helm spires. The facade of Notre Dame du Puy, le Puy en Velay, France, has a more complex arrangement of diversified arches: Doors of varying widths, blind arcading, windows and open arcades. Polygonal towers were often used on crossings and occur in France, Germany, Italy and Spain such as that of the Old Cathedral, Salamanca, which is covered by a dome supported on a ribbed vault. [1] The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which partly or entirely rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal. [36] There are typically four planes containing three shafts, but there may be as many as twelve shafts, symbolic of the apostles. In Italy there is often a single central ocular or wheel window. The narthex, the aisles, the large aisled transepts and numerous projecting chapels reflect this. The tower to the left fell. Capital retaining Corinthian form decorated with intertwined beasts derived from Irish manuscripts. Far fewer large windows remain intact from the 12th century. The large wall surfaces and plain curving vaults of the Romanesque period lent themselves to mural decoration. As was typically the case in England, Ely Cathedral was a Benedictine monastery, serving both monastic and secular function. The eastern apse of Parma Cathedral, Italy (early 12th century) combines a diversity of decorative features: blind arcading, galleries, courses and sculptured motifs. San Zeno, Verona, has a porch typical of Italy. Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude, Nivelles, Belgium uses fine shafts of Belgian marble to define alternating blind openings and windows. [39] During the 11th and 12th centuries, figurative sculpture flourished in a distinctly Romanesque style that can be recognised across Europe, although the most spectacular sculptural projects are concentrated in South-Western France, Northern Spain and Italy. To learn more about Roman, please visit Enciclopedia del Románico en la Península Ibérica. [12], Many parish churches across Europe, such as this in Vestre Slidre, Norway, are of Romanesque foundation, The Romanesque Sénanque Abbey church and surrounding monastic buildings, Gordes, Provence, France, Collegiate churches such as that of Saint Hadelin, Celles, Belgium, were administered by lay canons, Many cathedrals such as Trier Cathedral, Germany, date from this period, with many later additions. This sort of arrangement is particularly noticeable on the towers of Italian churches, which are usually built of brick and may have no other ornament. In the Rhineland and Netherlands the Carolingian form of west end known as the westwerk prevailed. The largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. (2016), This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 08:44. Bienvenue sur le site de Mairie de Romans. Rechercher . One of a series of prophets that are the oldest stained glass windows in situ. At Autun Cathedral, France, the pattern of the nave bays and aisles extends beyond the crossing and into the chancel, each aisle terminating in an apse. Yes No. This type of entrance was to be elaborated in the Gothic period on the transepts at Chartres. France produced a great range of ornament, with particularly fine interwoven and spiralling vines in the "manuscript" style occurring at Saint-Sernin, Toulouse.[13][24][26]. Bienvenue sur le site de Roman SA. Castle Rising, England, shows flat buttresses and reinforcing at the corners of the building typical in both castles and churches. [Notes 2][3] In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie,[4] at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained:[5][6][7], The name Roman (esque) we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences, also has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used already to describe the language of the same period. While the arcade of a cloister is typically of a single stage, the arcade that divides the nave and aisles in a church is typically of two stages, with a third stage of window openings known as the clerestory rising above them. Mais voilà, Charlie vient d’être avalée par un dragon, puis recrachée. In most of Northern Europe such pictures were systematically destroyed in bouts of Reformation iconoclasm. [24][27], Where really massive columns were called for, such as those at Durham Cathedral, they were constructed of ashlar masonry and the hollow core was filled with rubble. Découvrez le site d'Irène Frain : la bibliographie, la biographie, les photos et les interviews de la romancière. During the Crusades, the military orders of the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar were founded. Roman, Suspense, Science Fiction, Témoignages…, il y aura toujours un genre littéraire à votre goût . At San Michele the vertical definition is present as at San Zeno, but the rooflines are screened behind a single large gable decorated with stepped arcading. With double side aisles and with an aisled transept and an ambulatory surrounding the apse, pilgrims could make the circuit around the church and were able to stop for meditation and prayer at the apsidal chapels of the transept and the radiating chapels of the choir. [29], Because Romanesque arches are nearly always semi-circular, the structural and design problem inherent in the ribbed vault is that the diagonal span is larger and therefore higher than the transverse span. The enormous and powerful monastery at Cluny was to have lasting effect on the layout of other monasteries and the design of their churches. Several significant churches that were built at this time were founded by rulers as seats of temporal and religious power, or places of coronation and burial. Monastery of San Juan de Duero, Soria, Spain, The majority of buildings have wooden roofs, generally of a simple truss, tie beam or king post form. St Albans Cathedral England, demonstrates the typical alterations made to the fabric of many Romanesque buildings in different styles and materials. Each vault compartment covers two narrow bays of the nave. Enregistrer l’offre d’emploi. This style of doorway occurs in many places and continued into the Gothic period. Il s’agissait d’écrire une nouvelle par jour en moins de 1.500 caractères. This form is usual in Italy and Germany. With Lucky McKee, Nectar Rose, Kristen Bell, Ben Boyer. MON ESPACE. View the profiles of people named Roman Roman. [22][23] In Spain, the most famous church of the period is Santiago de Compostela. Within the monasteries books were transcribed by hand, and few people outside the monasteries could read or write. The aisles at Peterborough Cathedral have quadripartite ribbed vaults. Sometimes the columns are in multiples of two or three. The result of this was that they could be called upon, not only for local and regional spats, but to follow their lord to travel across Europe to the Crusades, if they were required to do so. Écoutez un roman, une nouvelle, un poème d'auteur classique ou contemporain. The type of modern buildings for which the Romanesque style was most frequently adapted was the warehouse, where a lack of large windows and an appearance of great strength and stability were desirable features. The monasteries were the major seats of learning of all sorts. Les romans de Guillaume Musso sont traduits en 42 langues et connaissent le succès partout dans le monde. Roman Sacred Spring. [29] Pointed ribs made their first appearance in the transverse ribs of the vaults at Durham Cathedral in northern England, dating from 1128. Retour en haut de la page. The Romanesque appearance has been achieved while freely adapting an overall style to suit the function of the building. Le voyage de votre vie. Home. Le site inlibroveritas vous offre un très grand nombre de romans érotiques à lire gratuitement en ligne, sans inscription ! This style was adapted to suit commercial buildings by opening the spaces between the arches into large windows, the brick walls becoming a shell to a building that was essentially of modern steel-frame construction, the architect Henry Hobson Richardson giving his name to the style, Richardsonian Romanesque. These include the Abbaye-Saint-Denis, Speyer Cathedral and Westminster Abbey (where little of the Norman church now remains). This nave elevation of Arnsburg Abbey, Germany, shows the typical arrangement of the nave arcade, aisle, clerestory windows and ribbed vault, Exterior elevation, Peterborough Cathedral, The eastern end of a Romanesque church is almost always semi-circular, with either a high chancel surrounded by an ambulatory as in France, or a square end from which an apse projects as in Germany and Italy. In France the eastern terminals of the important abbeys of Caen, Vézelay and, most significantly, the Basilica of St Denis were completely rebuilt in the Gothic style. Christ in Majesty was a common theme for the apse. In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally used. Romans, dictionnaires, livres de développement personnel, de marketing, de finance, d'économie... et … San Miniato al Monte, Florence (1013–1090) has basilical form, open timber roof and decoration of polychrome marble and mosaic. The domed churches of Constantinople and Eastern Europe were to greatly affect the architecture of certain towns, particularly through trade and through the Crusades. Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, castles, city walls, bridges, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Charlemagne's political successors continued to rule much of Europe, with a gradual emergence of the separate political states that were eventually to become welded into nations, either by allegiance or defeat, into the Kingdom of Germany giving rise to the Holy Roman Empire. The Crusades, 1095–1270, brought about a very large movement of people and, with them, ideas and trade skills, particularly those involved in the building of fortifications and the metal working needed for the provision of arms, which was also applied to the fitting and decoration of buildings. Life became generally less secure after the Carolingian period. In Germany, where four towers frequently occur, they often have spires that may be four or eight sided, or the distinctive Rhenish helm shape seen on the cathedrals of Limburg[24] or Speyer. It is very large and its interior plan made it possible to direct traffic. The alternation of red and blue is a typical device of simpler window designs. Site officiel de Romans-sur-Isère. Okami Naissance d'une Divarvel (en version broché) Née sapiens, Charlie a vécu les cinquante dernières années entre le monde caché des dragons et le nôtre. [24], The solution employed in England was to stilt the transverse ribs, maintaining a horizontal central line to the roof like that of a barrel vault. [34], The plan of the Abbey of St Gall, Switzerland, Spain, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, France, Basilica of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, The Abbey Church of St. Gall, Switzerland, shows the plan that was to become common throughout Germanic Europe. To either side are marble reliefs showing the Fall of Man and the Life of Christ, The mouldings of the arched central west door of Lincoln Cathedral are decorated by chevrons and other formal and figurative ornament typical of English Norman. Écrivez votre premier roman un chapitre après l’autre grâce au parcours « Quêtes et Aventures ». Romanesque crypts have survived in many instances, such as Canterbury Cathedral, when the church itself has been rebuilt. A number of Romanesque churches are roofed with a series of Domes. (See image of Abbey Church of St James, Lébény, above), The octagonal crossing tower of the Abbey church at Cluny influenced the building of other polygonal crossing towers in France, Spain and Germany. With its square enclosure and orthogonal design based on the cardo and decumanus, the two perpendicular routes running through the city, it is an excellent example of Roman town planning.. Unfortunately, many of these early wall paintings have been destroyed by damp or the walls have been replastered and painted over. This was to become a feature of Rhenish Romanesque. Churches showing the transition between Romanesque and Gothic, Conrad Rudolph, ed., A Companion to Medieval Art: Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe, 2nd ed. Afficher le site en : Version classique Version mobile. Its increasing application was fundamental to the development of Gothic architecture. Fond perdu. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030.[12]. All over Europe, dwellers of the town and country built houses to live in, some of which, sturdily constructed in stone, have remained to this day with sufficient of their form and details intact to give a picture of the style of domestic architecture that was in fashion at the time. Geneviève De Gaulle Anthonioz 26102 Romans. The pairing of creatures could draw on Byzantine and Celtic models. (See pic. The carving of the polychrome porch of the Saint-Michel-D'aiguilhe chapel, the Aiguilhe, Haute-Loire, France, (11th century), has paired mermaids, and the Lamb of God. St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim has similar characteristics to the church in the Plan of Saint Gall. The western end having two round towers flanking a tall central tower was unique in Britain. They are often double shells, filled with rubble. The monasteries, which sometimes also functioned as cathedrals, and the cathedrals that had bodies of secular clergy often living in community, were a major source of power in Europe. (Gothic vault), Malmesbury Abbey, England, has hollow core columns, probably filled with rubble. Germany was not quick to adopt the Gothic style, and when it did so in the 1230s, the buildings were often modelled very directly upon French cathedrals, as Cologne Cathedral was modelled on Amiens. The nave and aisles are separated by an arcade carried on piers or on columns. Find all your Cisco training tools, courses, and certifications in one place. Taille de coupe. Similar paintings exist in Serbia, Spain, Germany, Italy and elsewhere in France.[24]. Je crains de les avoir dévastés, mais je plaide non-coupable. In northern France, two large towers, such as those at Caen, were to become an integral part of the facade of any large abbey or cathedral. On these mouldings around the portal of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament, tongue-poking monsters, vines and figures, and symmetrical motifs. [13], The capitals, while retaining the form of a square top and a round bottom, were often compressed into little more than a bulging cushion-shape. A rare and remarkable survival, of "unforgettable beauty",[42] the very large Crucifixion window of Poitiers Cathedral, France. Wooden ceilings and timber beams were decorated. As the towers rise, the number and size of openings increases as can be seen on the right tower of the transept of Tournai Cathedral where two narrow slits in the fourth level from the top becomes a single window, then two windows, then three windows at the uppermost level. Start now. Coordination de prélèvement d'organes et de tissus - Romans. The most durable of these columns are of marble and have the stone horizontally bedded. Encore un site exclusivement consacré à la littérature. It is approximately 1/3 the height, and is much less complex in execution than the Emperor series of which Otto II is a part.See left. The Collegiate Church, Empoli, Italy, represents a screen facade. Harper & Brothers. Gérez vos notes, vos fiches de personnages et travaillez sur la structure de votre roman au même endroit. Architectural compromises of this type are seen where materials have been salvaged from a number of buildings. Good examples of the style are Marshall Field's Wholesale Store, Chicago, by H.H. [24] They were essential to the communal way of life, a place for both working during daylight hours and relaxing during inclement weather. PRIX DU ROMAN GAY 2020. In the cases where half-barrel vaults were used, they effectively became like flying buttresses. [36] The common decorative feature is arcading.[1]. While the form is typical of northern France, its various components were common to many Romanesque churches of the period across Europe. The interior would have been plastered and painted. Much of Europe was affected by feudalism in which peasants held tenure from local rulers over the land that they farmed in exchange for military service. 306966 Retrouvez nos coordonnées, horaires d'ouverture, plan d'accès, contact, Devis. Large paired towers of square plan could also occur on the transept ends, such as those at Tournai Cathedral in Belgium. 32 discussions 626 messages Dernier message hier 23:16:26 par Eglantine_Petit: Autour de Livraddict. Benedict had ordered that all the arts were to be taught and practiced in the monasteries. Polychrome blind arcading of the apse of Monreale Cathedral, Sicily (1174–82) The decoration indicates Islamic influence in both the motifs and the fact that all the arches, including those of the windows, are pointed. [12], Dating shortly after the Palatine Chapel is a remarkable 9th-century Swiss manuscript known as the Plan of Saint Gall and showing a very detailed plan of a monastic complex, with all its various monastic buildings and their functions labelled. Abbey of St Mary Magdalene, Vézelay, (consecrated 1104) has clusters of vertical shafts rising to support transverse arches and a groin vault. Colonnettes and attached shafts are also used structurally and for decoration. The portal of the Hermitage of St Segundo, Avila, has paired creatures. They moved along one of the four main routes that passed through France, congregating for the journey at Jumièges, Paris, Vézelay, Cluny, Arles and St. Gall in Switzerland.

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